Topic 3: Framework Overview: Flask and Django

1. Flask

Introduction: Flask is a micro web framework written in Python. It is termed “micro” because it doesn’t require any specific tools or libraries, leaving the developer the freedom to choose how they want to implement specific components. Flask is lightweight, flexible, and can be used to create a wide variety of web applications, from simple single-page applications to complex RESTful APIs.

Key Features:

  • Simplicity: Flask provides what’s needed to get an app up and running quickly with minimal boilerplate.

  • Extensibility: While Flask is minimalistic at its core, it can be easily extended with various extensions available in the ecosystem, catering to form handling, authentication, and more.

  • Flexibility: It doesn’t enforce a specific project or code layout, allowing developers to choose their structure.

Example: Creating a simple web server with Flask:

from flask import Flask app = Flask(__name__) @app.route('/') def hello_world(): return 'Hello, World!' if __name__ == '__main__':

2. Django

Introduction: Django is a high-level Python web framework that encourages the use of the model-view-controller (MVC) architectural pattern. It focuses on automating as much as possible and follows the “Don’t Repeat Yourself” (DRY) principle. With Django, developers can build robust, scalable, and secure web applications quickly.

Key Features:

  • Batteries-included: Django includes an ORM (Object-Relational Mapping), an admin interface, and many built-in features that many web applications would require.

  • Security: It has built-in protection against many common web attacks like CSRF, XSS, and SQL injection.

  • Scalability: High scalability, suitable for building large-scale applications.

  • MVC Architecture: Django follows the MVC pattern, ensuring a separation of concerns within the application.

  • ORM: Allows developers to define their database schema using Python classes. This enables database operations in Python code rather than writing raw SQL queries.

Example: Creating a simple Django view:

  1. In your Django project’s
from django.http import HttpResponse def hello_world(request): return HttpResponse("Hello, World!")
  1. In your Django project’s
from django.urls import path from . import views urlpatterns = [ path('', views.hello_world, name='hello_world'), ]

Conclusion: While Flask and Django are both web frameworks in Python, they cater to different needs. Flask’s simplicity and flexibility make it a great choice for smaller applications, prototypes, or when developers want more control over the components they use. Django, on the other hand, is more suited for larger applications or when rapid development is necessary, as many built-in tools can significantly speed up the development process. The choice between them largely depends on the specific requirements of the project and the preference of the developer.